1. Piston Effect 2. Buckling Effect 3. Ballooning Effect 4. Temperature Effect
The piston effect, sagging and ballooning result of pressure changes in the system. The temperature effect is only a function of temperature change.
Piston Effect on the packer or packer
By changing the pressures in the tubing and / or void there is a resultant force acting on the packer, up or down. Consideration should be taken when the packer is in place and the relationship tubing – packer is balanced.
Efecto Buckling Buckling or the packer
This effect is caused by the distribution of two forces, one located at the end of the pipe and the other along the walls of this.
The pipe is on the floor of the tower bends under its own weight, the force first mentioned looks like this, and the other force is due to the pressure difference between inside and outside of the tubing. In short, the buckling is the curving of the pipe.
It produces the concavity or convexity of the pipe due to pressure difference. When the pressure inside the pipe is greater than the external embalonamiento occurs, causing tension on the packer seated, otherwise there is a narrowing of the pipe inducing weight on the packer.
Effect of Temperature on the packer
The increase in temperature increases the length of the pipe bear weight on the packer seated. The decrease in temperature shortens the tubing produced tension on the packer seated.
Currently, there are sophisticated programs to evaluate the final result of these four effects.