hydraulic fracturing bjHydraulic fracturing is a well-stimulation process in which a frac fluids are pumped down casing or a temporary workstring under high pressure up to 20,000 psi to artificially fracture a reservoir rock iIn order to increase permeability and production.
Fracturing can be done in stages during which different fluids are injected into the well. First a pad, which is frac fluid without proppants, is pumped down the well until formation breakdown. Then the frac fluid with proppants is pumped. At the end of hydraulic fracturing, a clear fluid flush is pumped down the well to clean the well of prop-pants. The flush can also be an underflush or overtlush depending on the amount of flushing fluids pumped.

Fracturing equipment includes pumping units, blenders, bulk handling equipment such as sand transports and frac fluid transports, a trailer-mounted manifold, and frac bus. The frac fluid flows out of perforations in the casing or, if the well is riot cased, packers arc used to isolate the formation. The frac fluid is usually water (possibly mixed with acid) or diesel oil. Thickening agents can be used to increase frac-fluid viscosity.

Propping agents (small spheres) such as weil-sorted sand or aluminum-oxide pellets, are suspended the fluid and are used to hold the fractures open after the pumping stops, The proppant or sand concentration is usually 2-4 lbs/gal and is mixed with the frac fluid in the blender The frac job is measured by the pounds of sand used which usually varies from 20,000 to 1,000,000 lbs in a massive hydraulic frac.

Higher injection rates form Longer fractures. Some types of hydraulic fracturing include a)Hydrafrac, b) sandfrac, c) waterfrac, d) acidfrac, e) superfrac, 1) gelled nraterfrae, g) gelled oilfrac, h) emulsion frac, and i) vapor frac. Hydraulic fracturing was developed in 1948 and was originally done through a tubing string to below a packer.


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