Bactericides. Used to Prevent Bacterial Degradation of natural organic additives s, such as starch and xanthan gum.
Reducing calcium. Soda ash, bicarbonate of soda, caustic soda and Un certain polyphosphates Are Used to reduce calcium in seawater, treat cement contamination, and Overcome contaminating effects of anhydrite and gypsum, Both forms of calcium sulfates.
Corrosion inhibitors. pH control, Along With an Appropriate corrosion inhibitor, is Used to control corrosion, neutralize hazardous acid gases and Prevent scale. Are Common corrosion inhibitors amine-or phosphate-based products, and Other Specially Formulated chemicals.
Defoamers. Products Are Designed to reduce foaming action, Particularly in Brackish and saturated saltwater muds.
Emulsifiers. These products create a heterogeneous mixture (emulsion) of two insoluble liquids. They include fatty acids and amine-based Chemicals for oil-based muds and detergents, soaps, organic acids, and water-based surfactants for water-based muds. Products May Be anionic (Negatively charged), non-ionic (neutral) or cationic (Positively charged) Chemicals, Depending on the application.
Filtrate reducers. Bentonite clays, lignite, CMC (sodium carboxymethylcellulose), polyacrylate and pregelatinized starch all serve to DECREASE fluid loss, a measure of the Tendency of the drilling fluid’s liquid phase to pass through the filter cake Into the formation.
Flocculants. These Are Used To Increase Improved viscosity for hole cleaning, to Increase yield bentonite and to Clarify in-water or low-solids fluids. Salt (or brine), hydrated lime, gypsum, soda ash, bicarbonate of soda, sodium tetraphosphate and acrylamide-based polymers May Be used. They cause Particles in colloidal suspension Into bunches to group or «flocs» Causing solids to settle out.
Foam-forming agents. Most Often, Chemicals That These Are Also act as surfactants (surface active agents) to foam in the Presence of water. These foamers permit air or gas drilling-through water-bearing formations.
Hydrate suppressants. These Are Usually alcohol-based additives, Primarily for use in deepwater / coldwater / riser environments.
Material flow recuperator. The primary function of a lost circulation additive is to plug the zone of loss back in the formation, away from the borehole face, so Subsequent Operations That Will Not Result in Additional drilling fluid losses. LCM is found in three forms: fiber, flake, and granular / chemical thickening agents s, such as ground nut hulls or water swellable, non-soluble, crystalline polymers. In the case of Massive Lost Circulation, two or more of These materials and / or more Specialized May Be thickening materials needed.
Lubricants / pipe-releasing agents. Designed to reduce the drilling fluid’s coefficient of friction, lubricants DECREASE torque and drag. Various oils, synthetic liquids, graphite, surfactants, glycols and glycerin and Other Chemicals Are Used for this purpose.
Shale control inhibitors. Sources of soluble calcium and potassium, as well as inorganic salts and organic compounds, Provide by Reducing shale shale hydration control. These Products Are Used To Prevent Excessive wellbore enlargement and heaving or caving while drilling water-sensitive shales.
Surface active agents. Surfactants, as They Are Called, reduce interfacial tension Between Contacting Surfaces (water / oil, water / solid, water / air, etc.). These May Be emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting agents, flocculants or deflocculants, Depending on the Surface Involved.
Temperature-stabilizing agents. These rheological and filtration products Increase Stability of drilling fluids Exposed to high temperatures and Those That continue to Perform Their Intended Purpose Under These conditions. Are Various Chemicals Used, Including acrylic polymers, sulfonated polymers and copolymers, as well as lignite, lignosulfonate and tannin-based additives.
Solvents, dispersants. These Chemicals modify viscosity and the Relationship Between Percentage of solids in a drilling mud. They May Be Used, further, to reduce gel strength, Increase the fluid’s «pumpability,» etc. Tannins (quebracho), Various polyphosphates, lignite and lignosulfonate materials function as thinners, or as dispersants. Main purpose of a thinner is to function as a deflocculant to reduce attraction (flocculation) of clay Particles, Which produce high viscosity and gel Strengths.
Viscosifier. Bentonite, CMC, attapulgite clays and polymers Are Used To Increase Better viscosity for hole cleaning and suspension of solids.
Weighting materials. Barite, iron oxides, calcium carbonates and similar products Possessing high specific gravity formation control Are Used To Pressure, check formation caving and Facilitate pulling dry pipe.