Geology is the science that deals with the history and structure of the earth and its life forms, especially as recorded in the rock record. A basic understanding of its concepts and processes is essential in the petroleum industry, for it is used to predict where oil accumulations might occur. It is the job of the petroleum geologist to use his/her knowledge to reconstruct the geologic history of an area to determine whether the formations are likely to contain petroleum reservoirs. It is also the job of the geologist to determine whether the recovery and production of these hydrocarbons will be commercially profitable.The physical characteristics of a reservoir, how petroleum originated and in what type of rock, what types of fluids exist in the reservoir, how hydrocarbons become trapped, and basic well log analysis are some of the concepts vital to the production and recovery efforts of any exploration or energy service company.

After completing this section, you should be able to:

· Define Geology and how it applies to the petroleum industry.
· Define and describe the three basic layers of Earth.
· Differentiate between weathering processes and erosional processes
· Name the three rock types.
· List the components of the rock cycle.
· Explain the three basic principles of relative age dating.
· Define and explain a rock formation.
· Explain the origin of hydrocarbons.
· Define porosity.
· List the controls on porosity.
· Define permeability.
· Define a reservoir.
· List the two most common reservoir rock types and give some general characteristics
of each type.
· Explain fluid distribution in a petroleum reservoir.
· List and describe the basic hydrocarbon traps.
· Name the different geological mapping techniques used in petroleum exploration.
· Explain the difference between surface and subsurface exploration.
· Explain the basic concepts of well log analysis.


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