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Category Archives: Servicio de Pozos

FISHING TOOLS OIL INDUSTRY




Classification tools based on the type of fishing

* Tubular parts removal tool.
* Tools not tubular fish.
* Tools depleting fish.

TUBULAR EXTRACTOR TOOL PARTS

FUNCTION: HANDLE OR CLIP Type: External Hold internal Tarraja (Die Collar)
Fishing is a simple tool that grips the outside of the piece tubular donut-shaped styling. The A Toolkit screwed on the right and left rotating loose why it is rarely used because it does not loosen easily and is not practical.

PLUG (Overshoat)
It is a tool that grips the outside by means of wedges or claws that allow running on the tapered surface of the connector plug. Modern plug is removable, you can move around the fish, hold the tension, torsion and shock necessary to loosen the fish. That’s why the plug is the tool most commonly used fishing in the rescue work.

Type: Grab the inside tapered male (taper tap)
It is a tool designed to grip the inside of the fish tubular pipe enters the styling (plotting) thread in their wake. As the collar of the dice, do not release the tapered male fish. Although still used in special tasks, the tapered male has been replaced almost entirely by several types of harpoons.

HARPOON (spear)
The harpoon has wedges that hold the fish inside. It is removable and WO fluid can be circulated by the harpoon and fish. It can operate in tubing from 2 3 / 8”to 4 1 / 2”or 5”covering up 9 5 / 8.”

FEATURE: WASHING MACHINES
Often, the fish catch is not enough to remove and must resort to other means to remove it. The most common and most effective way is to apply a wash with larger diameter pipe.

Type: Clean out Tube washing (wash pipe)
Rotation is used for the fish to detach from the wall of the hole and leave the solids that have stuck. The duty washing tube external diameter of the well. The diameter should be slightly larger to fit over the fish. Generally the backwash line is made by coating type N-80 with thick walls and the proper size to get over the fish and is equipped with connections that can be well soldadadas or thread.

Rotary Shoe (rotary shoe)
These shoes are constructed of high quality steel cutting surfaces consist of tungsten carbide bits of different sizes. Place the lower end of the string machine. With it you can “punch” or clean the annulus between the casing and fish, thus making a breakthrough. The design of the shoe depends on the material Rotary fish sticks or metal drilling.

As shoes are generally used for cutting gear Rotary formations while the flat bottom used to cut metals such as gaskets, nail walls, etc.

Type: Combined Function Washer – loosen Get off at the upper end of washing. She grabs the top of the fish in the jack by screwing it. The portion that has been washed and separated from the rest of the fish through a loose shot strings. Washing, pulled loose and repeat until you have recovered the whole fish.

FEATURE: O jackhammer force multiplier
Hydromechanical
Consist of 2 components, a hydraulic hammer is usually placed in the top of the hammer and mechanical component which is often located n the bottom of the structure. Both components can be used separately and individually as a single unit. Usually connected above the neutral point of the bottom assembly. A special feature is that it has a device called an insurer or mechanical lock, this device eliminates the need to open the hammer before running it on a well and also eliminates the possibility that the hammer to fire while making a trip to run in the well either lowering or removing the string.

Mechanical hammer (jar)
The working principle is supported by the action of a spring mechanism which is energized by action of tension or compression and which then LBER the energy needed to produce the shock with which they seek to achieve the release of fish.

Subgolpeador (Bumpersub)
This is the simplest of artifacts in fish force multipliers. It is a telescopic joint that gives a blow each time the line reaches the end of tour telescope also called Scissor .. Because it is simple and gets stronger as part of any string in fishing.

FEATURE: UNLOCK TOOLS Type: Split left Safety Board (Safety Joint)
Is a board that is threaded and unscrews left by clockwise rotation. Be placed on a plug or similar tool or drill collars tubes when there is a chance of jamming the string.

FEATURE: LONGITUDINAL CUTTERS AND STRIPPERS Type: Metal Cutters Cutters interior (internal cutter)
They are cutting machines that cut the tube walls through blades.

External Cutters (external cutter)
The cutters on the outside are connected to the lower end of the washing tube. Retained in the tube section of fish washed and cut and is rescued.

Anti-seize explosive back-off
Also called explosive cord consists of an explosive charge disposed in the cord that can be shot down to cable in the fish, so that the work load the fish are to be aguntar twist. The explosion opens the connection female fish.

FEATURE: PRINTERS O INDICATOR Type: Fish Stamp Stop Lead block printing (Printer block)
A block print gives visual evidence to determine the spectrum of the top of the fish. The printing blocks are usually one-piece assembly consisting of a steel body within which have shaped a block of lead. The simplest indicator.

Cutters chemicals (chemical cutter)
Used when it is not possible to perform an extraction of fish with explosive cord because the pipe is stuck spinning even when torque is applied to unscrew. The cutter is lowered to the cable to the depth at which the wing is going to make the cut which is usually one or two joints above the sticking point and the cutter is activated by an electrical impulse delivered from the surface. They got cable.

Casing Scraper
Is used to remove crusts of mud or concrete, embedded bullets, guns edges created by drilling, rust deposits of paraffin and similar substances from inside the walls of the casing.



OIL FISHING




Fishing operation

Fishing is any operation which aims at the recovery of foreign objects left inside the well during drilling, workover pulling or work. In the oil industry, fishing refers to the application of tools, equipment and technology for the removal of rubbish or unwanted things in a well.

The key elements in the haul includes understanding the scope, nature of the fish to remove the conditions that exist in the well, the tools and techniques to be employed.

The keys to the success of a fishing operation are: cutting, grinding and removal of fish.

Fish in the oil industry. What is a fish

A fish is any object that is left in a well, could be a piece of metal, a tool in the hand, a section of pipe, a measuring tool or other device. Once the object is stuck in the hole is called a fish.

Fish Causes of hollow tubing.
The main causes are associated with the breakdown of the production tubing, sand or waste accumulation of training and failure of completion tools and accessories.

Considerations to start fishing in a pool of oil

* Maintain a detailed and comprehensive record of the lengths and diameters of the different components of the drill string.
* Understand the mechanical constraints (maximum tension, burst pressure, etc.) of the drill pipe and tools used in each job.
* Make a selection of tools for each job and carefully plan each phase of the operation.
* Have indicators string weight, torque and pressure of the pump calibrated and in good working condition.
* Maintain the conditions and workover fluid properties in good condition.
* Avoid any type of simplicación.

Analysis before a cased hole fishing

Before putting any fishing tool should know the following:

* Inside diameter of casing – Select diameter seat.
* Inner and outer diameter of the fish – Select box.
* Diameter minimum allowable step (drift). Diameter is recommended to select the tools so as to allow them free passage.
* Deep fish cap.
* Form the top of the fish.

HORIZONTAL DRILLING AND HYDRAULIC FRACTURING | VIDEO




COILED TUBING

Hola a todos petroblogger@s!…en esta oportunidad postearé un aportazo del Ing. Venezolano Alejandro Chirinos quien gustosamente decidió compartir a través del correo del blog información muy didáctica sobre Coiled Tubing de su experiencia de haber laborado en Zulia en campos de onshore así como en el Lago Maracaibo; desde este post todo mi agradecimiento y reconocimiento al Ingeniero por hacer poosible que muchos podamos conocer más acerca de esta importante herramienta utilizada en la industria a la que pertenecemos, la industria petrolera.

  • Coiled Tubing o Tubería Enrollable
  • Equipos de Coiled Tubing: Especificaciones de longitud, potencia de tracción, diámetro, velocidad de trabajo, tasa de trabajo, bombas triplex, capacidad de almacenaje y desplazamiento.
  • Definición de Coiled Tubing
  • Diseño del Coiled Tubing
  • Partes del Coiled Tubing: Cabina de control, potencia hidráulica, carreto, tubería, guía, inyector, válvulas impiderreventones, etc.
  • Stuffing box
  • Funciones y componentes del carreto en el Coiled Tubing
  • Sistema de levelwind
  • Componentes y funciones del Power Pack
  • Medidas de la tubería de Coiled Tubing
  • Flash free tubing
  • Trabajos típicos realizados con Coiled Tubing: Limpiezas (químicas, mecánicas); Instalación de sarta (gas lift, inyección, producción); Estimulación (acidificación);Bombeo de fluidos (tratamiento químico, bacterias, gel); Cementación (taponamientos y forzamientos); Levantamiento con Nitrógeno N2; Pesca; Perforación; Milado; Ampliación; Corrida de registro y cañoneo.
  • Puntos a considerar durante una estimulación de pozos, bombeo, cementación y levantamiento con nitrógeno N2.

EQUIPOS DE WORKOVER

Este es un post respecto a los Equipos utilizados en Workover con fotografías que nos envió desde Ecuador el Ing. M. Sc. Jaime Flores respecto a equipos que actualmente están trabajando en el Campo Sacha operado por la compañía mixta Río Napo CEM.
Las operaciones de Workover se diferencian de las operaciones de pulling debido a que las primeras tienen por objeto modificar las condiciones del reservorio para contribuir a mejorar el I.P, con ese fin las operaciones de Workover tienen por objeto abrir y/o cerrar arenas, aumentar quizá el diámetro del pozo o su profundidad, balear zonas, aizsar zonas perjudiciales como aquellas que producen agua y también incluye las operaciones de pesca a diferencia de las operaciones de pulling donde el objetivo es dar un mantenimiento a los equipos de levantamiento tal como una limpieza de parafinas a los equipos de bombeo mecánico.

Clasificación de los Equipos de Workover
  • Convencionales
  • Auto-transportables

La diferencia es que los convencionales tienen mayor capacidad y se pueden hacer trabajos de workover en pozos profundos. Los equipos autotransportables disponen de un conjunto de malacate – motores de C.I. montados en un remolque. Los equipos autotransportables son más fácil desplazarse a otra locación.

Equipo de Workover auto-transportable
Equipo de Workover autrotransportable


Partes del Equipo de Workover

Sus componentes son muy similares a las partes de un equipo de perforación de pozos:

  1. Sistema de levantamiento.
  2. Sistema de circulación.
  3. Sistema de rotación.
  4. Fuente de potencia.
  5. Sistema de control de pozo.

1. Sistema de Levantamiento

Estructura o Torre y Subestructura, bloque viajero, bloque de corona, gancho, cable, malacate y Accesorios, elevadores, cuñas, llaves de esfuerzos, consola de control de instrumentos, winches auxiliares, rampa, etc.


Sistema de Levantamiento Workover


2. Sistema de Circulación

Tanques, fluido de circulación, bombas principales y auxiliares, tubo Vertical (Stand pipe), manguera de circulación, línea de Flujo o retorno (Flow Line), equipos de Control de Sólidos, fosas de asentamiento,desgasificadores y separadores de gas.

3. Sistema de Rotación

Mesa Rotaria y accesorios, tubería de trabajo (drill pipe), drill collar, tubería pesada (hevi-wate), broca, kelly y accesorios, unión giratoria (swivel).

4. Sistema de Potencia

Motores primarios, generadores, trasmisión de Potencia.

Motores primarios
Generalmente son de combustión interna, siendo el combustible más utilizado el Gas Oil. Estos motores pueden estar acoplados directamente con el equipo o acoplados a Generadores encargados de suplir potencia eléctrica.

Generadores
Cambian la potencia mecánica desarrollada por los motores primarios en corriente eléctrica y generalmente son de corriente alterna.

Transmisión de Potencia
La potencia generada por los motores primarios, debe transmitirse a los equipos para proporcionarle el movimiento. Si el Equipo es Mecánico, esta potencia se transmite directamente del motor primario al equipo. Si el equipo es Eléctrico, la potencia mecánica del motor se transforma en potencia eléctrica con los generadores, luego, esta potencia eléctrica se transmite a los motores eléctricos acoplados a los equipos, logrando su movimiento.

5. Sistema de Control de Pozo

Válvulas Preventoras (BOP´s), anular o esférico, arietes o rams de tubería, arietes o rams ciego (Blind Rams), Arietes o Rams de Cizalla (Shear Rams), Unidad acumuladora de presión, Múltiple de estranguladores (kill manifold), Estrangulador manual o remoto (super-choke), Línea de matar (kill line), Línea del estrangulador (choke line), Válvula de descarga (HCR), Válvulas auxiliares (kelly cock, preventor interno).

BOP de un equipo de Workover
BOP de un equipo de Workover