CARE IN THE GRAVEL PACKING

To perform with gravel packing in horizontal wells in an effective and productive it is necessary to comply with the following premises:

* Maintaining the stability of the hole during drilling and well completion.

* Use consistent with the formation fluids, clean and meets the requirements of hydrostatic pressure.

* The mud used in drilling the horizontal section should be a sludge which bypass primary agent is such as to control the leakage of filtrate into the formation, which can be removed easily and effectively by the fluid produced, have good properties suspension, low friction loss, easily controllable density.

* The fluids used for packing gravel base can be water or oil. Water-based fluids are generally preferred, and are considered more flexible than oil-based systems. Today, the lake is the gravel-carrying fluid is considered most appropriate. Laboratory tests and field results confirm that it is possible to run a successful gravel pack in a horizontal well using brine as a carrying fluid.

* Maintain a minimum rate of return of fluid equivalent to about 40% of the total pumping rate. If fluid loss is too high (eg, fluid hauling gravel seeps into the formation instead of flowing out of the well), the speed that carries the fluid that is directed out of the grid will be insufficient to alpha wave propagation, which causes the wave to stop. This ends the process of placing the gravel pack.

* The pumping rate applied during placement of gravel pack should be sufficient to create a surface speed between 1 and 3 feet per second annular space between the hole and the grid, in order to erode the top of the dune and it spread to the end of the range of completion.

* To maintain the concentration of gravel under 1 lbs of gravel per gallon of fluid carrying.

* Ensure that the relationship outer diameter pipe cleaning / inner diameter of the grid ranges between 0.75 and 0.80. Restricting the annulus, forcing the fluid to move and transport hauling gravel pit by the annular grid, to ensure propagation of the dune. The washing line width annulus pipe generates a wash / grid is limited. On the other hand if the ratio outer diameter pipe cleaning / inner diameter of the screen is too small, the dunes of gravel will stop prematurely at the top of the range of completion, which will cause a plugged premature. » If the ratio outer diameter pipe cleaning / inner diameter of the grid is too high, you could stick the backwash line and pump pressures might increase during the final stages of the placement of the gravel.

* Before running packing equipment and packing the well, it is preferable to move in reverse casing and open hole with clean, filtered brine at a speed of 300 ft / sec.

* Maintain a ratio of dune height between 0.7 and 0.8.

* Maintain a radial clearance of 0.75 to 1.0 inches. Between the hole and OD of the grids.

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